When lighting your landscape, a little goes a long way. Your eyes need less light outdoors than indoors to see light, shadows, and patterns. To plan your outdoor landscape lighting, start with a walk around your yard at night. Envision how and when you want to use your outdoor spaces, then tailor your lighting to suit those needs. When you're ready to choose fixtures and layout, use our landscape lighting ideas. These ideas include tips for the right placement and how to avoid common issues, so you can enjoy your outdoor spaces long after dark.
Landscape Lighting Basics
How light is seen during the day is different from how it is seen at night. This is a distinction that is particularly important when it comes to lighting pathways and other outdoor spaces. There are some lighting principles that apply indoors and out, though.
There are different intensities, colors, and quantities of light. You can find the color of a lightbulb on the packaging. It's a number that ranges from 1800 K (kelvins), which is very red, to 7500 K, which is bluish-white.
Whether it's indoors or out, lighting has three layers:
- Overall lighting: Overall light illuminates a whole room or space.
- Task lighting: Task lighting is used for a specific purpose, such as lighting a path.
- Accent lighting: Accent lighting draws attention to an object or area. This is usually accomplished with spotlights or floodlights.
A variety of lightbulbs are suitable for outdoor light fixtures.
- Incandescent bulbs emit pleasing light, but have a short life and consume more electricity.
- Halogen bulbs are more efficient versions of incandescents, typically with longer life and less energy consumption.
- Fluorescent bulbs are now available in a pleasing color range, last longer, and consume less energy.
- While LED landscape lighting can be more expensive, lightbulb costs (which continue to decline) are balanced by their extraordinarily long life and extremely low energy consumption.
Landscape lights near a building with electricity can easily be integrated into your home's wiring system. Solar landscape lighting is another option for an eco-friendly way to power your outdoor lights.
Outdoor Landscape Lighting Issues and Fixes
Outdoor lighting issues differ from indoor lighting issues. For example, reflection is less of an issue outdoors, since most surfaces are dark and don't reflect light well. However, positioning and shielding are more important in outdoor landscape lighting to prevent glare.
Glare occurs when a light source is too big or too bright. It can be blinding, because it reflects directly into people's eyes. Outdoor landscape lighting also needs to pay close attention to direct versus indirect light. Direct outdoor light, such as a downlight outside a side entry door, will mostly brighten the area where it's directed and little of the surroundings. Indirect light reflects on the surrounding surfaces to create a soft wash.
Landscape Lighting Placement Ideas
While outdoor lighting can be placed virtually anywhere, some spots make it an absolute must. Essential landscape lighting areas include:
Paths: A well-lit path is both welcoming and necessary, providing illumination that extends hospitality to visitors and makes walking more secure. High illumination isn't necessary, and downlights prevent glare. Individually lit pavers can also be used.
Entries: Place lights overhead or on each side of a door at the front, back, and side entries.
Driveway: Low-voltage landscape lighting, which is typically easier to install and uses less energy than other systems, is an excellent option along a driveway.
Steps: Steps should be lighted for safety; either the risers or the treads can be lit.
Decks or Patios: Lighting can be used to illuminate specific task areas on a deck or patio, such as an outdoor kitchen or grilling spot, as well as railings and seating areas. Uplighting, which is more difficult to accomplish outside, can be used on a deck or patio to light an umbrella or deck overhang. This is for an indirect effect.
Gazebos, Pergolas, or Trellises: Lighting is an ideal way to highlight an interesting built element in the landscape, such as a pergola or arbor.
Architectural Features: Outdoor landscape lighting can highlight a wall, for example, by washing or grazing. When a wide beam of light is aimed at a wall from a few feet away, it creates a wall wash. A light used to graze a wall creates interesting highlights and shadows. Both can accent nearby plants.
Landscape lighting fixtures, including wall fixtures, sconces, portable lamps, chandeliers, and ceiling fans, are available for nearly every spot. However, any fixture used outdoors should be rated for "UL wet location" use.
Outdoor Light Pollution
Too much light, or poorly installed lighting, can create unwanted light pollution that shines into indoor rooms. This washes out the view of the stars, creates glare that temporarily blinds people, and wastes energy and money. Follow these tips to avoid excess light pollution:
- Aim lights carefully. Position lights at night and check their position frequently.
- Shield bulbs. Use fixtures with reflectors and shielding to concentrate light where you want it.
- Minimize wattage. Higher wattage will create harsher light without improving aesthetics or safety. Low-wattage bulbs often provide enough illumination.
- Control the light. Separately zoned lights with timers, controls, dimmers, or motion sensors will turn on lights only when needed. They will also enable them to be turned down as necessary.